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What Does A Product Manager Do? A Practical Guide

What Does A Product Manager Do?

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Welcome to the world of product management – a domain where strategy, innovation, and leadership converge. Have you ever wondered, “What does a product manager do?” The PM role is pivotal in shaping the success of products in various industries, especially tech companies, and involves much more than meets the eye. From defining product vision to ensuring customer satisfaction, a product manager’s journey is both challenging and rewarding. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll unravel the mysteries of this dynamic role, explore its multifaceted responsibilities, dive into the skills and tools required, and discuss the career pathways and growth opportunities it offers. Whether you’re an aspiring product manager or simply curious about this key role in business and technology, let’s embark on this informative exploration together.

This post is based on my experiences as a Product Manager. For more information about them, you can read the following posts:

What Does a Product Manager Do: Role Overview

Role Overview: The Multidimensional World of a Product Manager

The role of a product manager is as dynamic as it is influential, serving as the linchpin in developing and launching successful products. At its core, the role of a product manager encompasses a blend of business acumen, user insight, and product foresight. These professionals serve as the strategic navigators of the product team, guiding the development of new products from conception to launch.

A product manager’s responsibilities extend beyond mere oversight; they are actively involved in defining the product vision, understanding and articulating users’ needs, and aligning these with the company’s business objectives. They act as the bridge between the engineering team, responsible for product creation, and the market, which will ultimately use and evaluate the product.

Furthermore, a product manager continuously collaborates with cross-functional teams to ensure that the product strategy is robust and achievable. They make pivotal decisions regarding product features, prioritize the product roadmap, and oversee the product life cycle, ensuring the delivery of a product that resonates with users and achieves business success.

In essence, a product manager embodies the role of a strategist, coordinator, and visionary, playing a critical role in shaping how a product evolves, how it meets the market demands, and how it contributes to the overarching goals of the business.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Product Manager vs Project Manager

Product Manager vs Project Manager

In the dynamic world of tech companies, the role of a product manager is often confused with that of a project manager. While both are pivotal in steering products and projects toward success, their responsibilities, skill sets, and ultimate goals are distinctly different.

A product manager acts as the visionary and strategist behind new products. They are often referred to as the ‘CEO of the product’ due to their comprehensive role, which encompasses everything from understanding customers’ needs to crafting the product vision and strategy. Unlike a project manager, whose primary focus is on executing projects within specific timeframes and constraints, a product manager is responsible for the overall success and lifecycle of a product.

In their unique position, product managers work closely with cross-functional teams, including the development team, user experience designers, and marketing professionals, to ensure that the product aligns with the business goals and meets market demands. Their role involves a blend of technical acumen, user empathy, and business savvy, making them key players in transforming ideas into successful products.

For more information about the differences, you can read my post What are the differences between Product Managers, Program Managers, Engineering Managers and Marketing Managers?

In the following sections, we’ll delve deeper into what it takes to be a good product manager, the key responsibilities they shoulder, and the impact they have on creating great products that resonate with users and thrive in the market.

What Do Product Managers Do: Different Types of Product Managers

Different Types of Product Managers

The realm of product management is diverse, encompassing various specializations. Here are some common types of product managers, each with a unique focus:

  1. Technical Product Manager: Specializes in deeply technical products, often requiring a strong background in software development or engineering. They bridge the gap between technical teams and business objectives.
  2. Data Product Manager: Focuses on products driven by data analytics and machine learning. They are adept at interpreting data insights to guide product development.
  3. Growth Product Manager: Concentrates on driving user acquisition, retention, and monetization. Their strategies are pivotal for the rapid growth of the product.
  4. UX/Product Design Manager: Aligns the product’s user experience with user needs and business goals. They work closely with design teams to ensure the product is intuitive and user-friendly.
  5. E-commerce Product Manager: Oversees online retail platforms, specializing in digital marketing, customer journey, and online sales strategies.
  6. B2B (Business-to-Business) Product Manager: Manages products designed for business clients, focusing on features and functionalities that meet specific business needs.
  7. B2C (Business-to-Consumer) Product Manager: Focuses on products for the general public, prioritizing user-friendliness and mass market appeal.

Understanding these different roles is crucial for aspiring product managers to identify their area of interest and develop relevant skills accordingly.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Bringing Ideas To Life

Product Management in Action: Bringing Ideas to Life

In the vibrant landscape of product development, the responsibilities of a product manager are diverse and integral to a product’s success. Here are some of the key responsibilities that define the role:

  1. Idea Generation and Validation: It starts with ideation – brainstorming new ideas based on market needs, user feedback, and business objectives. Validating these ideas through research and analysis is crucial before moving forward.
  2. Conducting Market and User Research: They deeply understand the market, competition, and customer needs through rigorous research, ensuring the product addresses real user problems and market gaps.
  3. Defining the Product Vision and Strategy: The product manager sets the long-term vision and strategy for the product, aligning it with the business goals and market opportunities.
  4. Prioritizing Features and Building the Product Roadmap: One of the crucial tasks is to prioritize features based on value to the customer and the business, and then plot these onto a roadmap for strategic development.
  5. Product Development Oversight: They oversee the entire product development process, ensuring that it adheres to the planned roadmap and meets the quality standards.
  6. Cross-Functional Team Leadership: Product managers lead cross-functional teams, including the engineering team, design, marketing, sales, and customer support, ensuring collaboration and alignment toward the product goals.
  7. Stakeholder Communication: Consistent communication with stakeholders, including senior management and external partners, is vital to keep everyone aligned and informed about the product’s progress and performance.
  8. Managing the Product Lifecycle: From ideation to retirement, they manage the entire product lifecycle, making decisions about when to pivot, iterate, or sunset features or products.
  9. User-Centric Approach: Everything revolves around the user. Product managers continuously gather user feedback to refine and improve the product, ensuring it solves real user problems and enhances their experience.
  10. Analyzing Product Performance: Post-launch, product managers analyze the performance of the product against Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and user feedback to make informed decisions on future iterations or improvements.
  11. Iterative Development and Adaptation: Product management is an iterative process. Product managers adapt strategies based on market changes, competition, and user feedback, continuously refining the product.

By fulfilling these responsibilities, product managers not only ensure the successful delivery of products but also contribute significantly to the strategic direction and overall success of the organization.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Skills And Tools

Skills and Tools: The Arsenal of a Successful Product Manager

A product manager’s effectiveness hinges on a diverse set of skills and the right tools. Here are some essential skills and tools they often rely on:


  1. Strategic Thinking: Product managers must envision the big picture, strategically aligning the product with market needs and business objectives.
  2. Analytical Skills: They need to analyze market data, user feedback, and performance metrics to make data-driven decisions.
  3. Communication and Interpersonal Skills: Effective communication, both within the team and with external stakeholders, is crucial. They must articulate ideas clearly and negotiate effectively.
  4. Empathy: Understanding and addressing the user’s needs and pain points is key, requiring a deep sense of empathy.
  5. Problem-Solving: They often navigate complex challenges, requiring robust problem-solving skills.
  6. Technical Aptitude: While not always deeply technical, a good grasp of the technology involved helps in making informed decisions and communicating effectively with the engineering team.


  1. Project Management Software: Tools like Jira and Asana help in tracking progress and managing tasks.
  2. Data Analysis Tools: Utilizing tools like Google Analytics for data-driven insights is essential.
  3. Customer Feedback Tools: Platforms like SurveyMonkey or Uservoice for gathering and analyzing user feedback.
  4. Roadmapping Software: Tools like Aha! or ProductPlan for creating and sharing the product roadmap.
  5. Collaboration Tools: Slack, Microsoft Teams, or similar tools for seamless communication.
  6. Design and Prototyping Tools: Basic knowledge of tools like Sketch or InVision can be advantageous.

By leveraging these skills and tools, product managers can effectively lead their teams, make strategic decisions, and drive the product toward success.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Product Requirements Document

Understanding the Product Requirements Document (PRD)

The Product Requirements Document (PRD) is a fundamental tool in product management, serving as the blueprint for a product’s development. It outlines the product’s purpose, features, functionalities, and behaviors, providing a clear vision to guide the development team.

Key Elements of a PRD:

  1. Purpose and Scope: Describes what the product is, who it’s for, and its primary objectives.
  2. Feature Requirements: Details the specific features and functionalities the product must have to meet user needs and business goals.
  3. User Flow and Experience: Maps out how users will interact with the product, ensuring a user-friendly design.
  4. Constraints and Dependencies: Identifies any limitations or external factors that might impact development.
  5. Timeline and Milestones: Sets out a timeline for development, including key milestones and deadlines.

A well-crafted PRD aligns the efforts of cross-functional teams, ensuring everyone works towards a unified goal. It’s a living document, often updated as new insights and requirements emerge during the product development process.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Collaboration and Team Interaction

Collaboration and Team Interaction: The Heart of Product Management

The success of a product often hinges on how effectively a product manager can collaborate with various teams. Here’s a look at the key aspects of this collaboration:

  1. Working with Cross-Functional Teams: Product managers regularly interact with engineering, design, marketing, sales, and customer support teams. Their role is to ensure all teams are aligned with the product’s vision and goals.
  2. Bridging Communication Gaps: As a central figure in product development, the product manager facilitates communication between different departments, ensuring everyone is on the same page.
  3. Stakeholder Management: They engage with internal and external stakeholders, including senior management and clients, to gather requirements, present updates, and incorporate feedback into the product strategy.
  4. Leading Through Influence: Product managers often lead without direct authority. They must influence and motivate team members and stakeholders to achieve common objectives.
  5. Feedback Synthesis: They gather and synthesize feedback from various sources, including customer feedback, team input, and market research, to make informed product decisions.

In essence, a product manager acts as the glue that holds the team together, ensuring smooth collaboration and effective interaction to drive the product forward.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Career Path and Growth

Career Path and Growth: Progression in Product Management

The career trajectory in product management offers diverse paths and opportunities for growth.

  1. Junior to Principal: Starting as an Associate Product Manager, professionals can climb the ladder and become Product Managers, Senior Product Managers, and Principal Product Managers. Responsibilities grow from managing specific features to overseeing entire product lines.
  2. Specialization: Experienced product managers might specialize in areas like data, UX, or technical aspects such as Machine Learning.
  3. Managerial positions: Leadership roles include the Director of Product or VP of Product, where strategic oversight and team leadership become key.
  4. Continuous Learning: The field demands ongoing learning and adaptation, with many opting for advanced degrees, certifications, or specialized training in areas like UX design, data analysis, or technical skills. Some of the best options for Product Manager training include the following:
    1. Certified Product Manager from AIPMM
    2. Product Certification Courses from the Pragmatic Institution
    3. M.Sc. in Product Management from Carnegie Mellon University
    4. Certificate in Software Product Management from the University of Washington
    5. Product Management Short Course from General Assembly
  5. Transitional Opportunities: Product managers can transition to roles in project management, marketing, or strategy, leveraging their broad skill set and business knowledge.

In product management, career growth is not just vertical but also horizontal, offering the flexibility to specialize, lead, or pivot into new domains.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Challenges And Problem-Solving

Challenges and Problem-Solving: Navigating the Complexities of Product Management

Product managers often face a variety of challenges that require astute problem-solving skills.

  1. Balancing Diverse Stakeholder Interests: Aligning the needs of customers, business goals, and technical feasibility can be challenging.
  2. Prioritization: Deciding which features to build and in what order, especially with limited resources, is a common hurdle.
  3. Market Dynamics: Keeping up with rapidly changing market trends and competition requires agility and foresight.
  4. Cross-Functional Coordination: Ensuring seamless collaboration across different teams often poses communication and alignment challenges.
  5. Measuring Success: Defining and tracking the right metrics to measure product success can be complex.

In product management, these challenges demand a blend of strategic thinking, communication, and analytical skills to find effective solutions.

What Does A Product Manager Do: Impact on Business and Product Development

Impact on Business and Product Development: The Influence of Product Managers

Product managers significantly shape both the business strategy and the development of products.

  1. Driving Business Growth: By identifying and delivering on market opportunities, product managers directly contribute to business growth and competitive positioning.
  2. Influencing Product Strategy: Their insights into market trends and user needs help shape the product’s direction, ensuring it meets market demands effectively.
  3. Enhancing Customer Engagement: Through focused attention on user experience and needs, product managers play a crucial role in improving customer satisfaction and loyalty.
  4. Operational Efficiency: By optimizing product development processes and fostering team collaboration, they enhance overall efficiency and productivity.

Product managers, thus, are key catalysts in aligning product development efforts with business objectives, ensuring both immediate success and long-term sustainability.

What does A Product Manager Do: Keeping Skills Updated

Keeping Skills Updated: Staying Ahead in Product Management

Continuous learning is crucial for product managers to stay relevant and effective.

  1. Embracing Industry Trends: Keeping up-to-date with the latest trends in technology, user experience, and market shifts is vital.
  2. Skill Development: Regularly updating skills in areas like data analysis, user research, and agile methodologies is important.
  3. Networking and Community Involvement: Engaging with professional networks, attending conferences, and participating in product management communities can provide valuable insights and learning opportunities.
  4. Feedback and Self-Reflection: Regular feedback from peers, mentors, and stakeholders, as well as self-reflection, helps in personal and professional growth.

In product management, staying updated is not just about knowledge acquisition but also about adapting and applying new insights effectively.

Product Manager Salary: A Comprehensive Guide
Product Manager Salary: A Comprehensive Guide

Product Manager Salary

The following matrix includes comparative data for the average product manager salary in the top tech companies in the United States. The matric is split based on job title and level. These are some of the most in-demand jobs in the industry.

Assistant Product Manager 1$157K$161K
Assistant Product Manager 2$164K$239K$152K$145K (L59)
$180K (L60)
$175K$203K$209K$ —
Product Manager$231K$209K$180K$269K$173K (L61)
$187K (L62)
Senior Product Manager$326K$296K$246K$318K$239K (L63)
$269K (L64)
Staff Product Manager$526K$432K$450K$440K$322K (L65)
$380K (L66)
596K (L67)
Senior Staff Product Manager$800K$ —$745K$726K781K (L68)$723K$905K$551K$829K
Director$1.32M$ —$ —$928K$1.14M$ —$ —
Senior Director$2.25M$2.45M$ —
VP$ —

For more information about the compensation for Software Engineers, you can look at my post Product Manager Salary: A Comprehensive Guide

What Does A Product Manager Do: Summary And Key Takeaways

Summary and Key Takeaways: What Does A Product Manager Do?

In conclusion, the role of a product manager is a testament to the multifaceted nature of creating successful digital and physical products. From orchestrating the development of new features to crafting high-level plans for product lines, great product managers embody a mix of hard skills and soft skills. They are subject matter experts, skilled in competitive analysis, adept at making tough decisions, and excel in customer service. With their eyes firmly on meeting the needs of the customer, product managers navigate the complexities of the supply chain, product design, and stakeholder expectations in a fast-paced environment.

Their role evolves with the company size and the product’s life cycle, making adaptability a key skill. Whether it’s managing a minimum viable product or rolling out a major release, the success of a product manager hinges on excellent communication skills, a deep understanding of the business model, and the ability to anticipate and fulfill potential customers’ needs. As Martin Eriksson noted, product managers are essentially the CEOs of their products, driving the vision, strategy, and execution to deliver a final product that enhances customer experience and meets business goals. For those aspiring to step into this dynamic role, remember that the journey of a product manager is about balancing strategic oversight with hands-on execution, continually learning, and adapting to ensure the success of your product in the ever-evolving world of business and technology.

About Me

I am an engineer with 15+ years in the tech industry, including roles at Google, Amazon, and Microsoft. I've been a Software Engineer, Product Manager, and Technical Program Manager. I also have an MBA from Kellogg School of Management with Majors in Finance and Marketing.

What drives me? A passion for empowering engineers to achieve Financial Independence and Retire Early (FIRE). I reached FIRE, when I turned 40 years old. Whether it's through personal finance strategies or career insights, I'm here to guide you on this path. Have questions or need advice? Feel free to reach out!

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